Sensor technologies for detection of urine patches in livestock-grazed pastures

Urine patches in grazed Results pastures are hotspots for nitrogen (N) losses through leaching and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions.

A New Zealand designed ground-based sensing machine, Spikey®, can detect urine patches through spiked disks.

The disks, acting as electrodes, measure the change in soil conductivity caused by urine deposition.

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