Assessment of nitrogen ﬂows at farm and regional level when developing the manure management system for large-scale livestock enterprises
Priority environmental concern in livestock and poultry farming in Leningrad Region is manure utilisation on large-scale agricultural enterprises. The nitrogen ﬂows on large-scale livestock enterprises in Leningrad Region were considered to determine how to take integrated manure management decisions towards reducing the nitrogen losses and, consequently, the environmental pressure. Nitrogen use eﬃciency (NUE) and Nsurplus values, obtained when calculating the nitrogen balances (Bittman, S. et al., 2014) for the whole Leningrad Region, its 17 administrative districts and individual agricultural enterprises were used as environmental assessment indicator. The calculations were based on available statistical information and farm survey data.